By continuing to browse Economic vulnerability. Vulnerability disclosure refers to the process of identifying, reporting and patching weaknesses of software, hardware, or services that can be exploited. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. Harvard catalyst regulatory foundations ethics law program . National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical Behavioral Research . The various actors within a vulnerability disclosure process are subject to a range of economic considerations and incentives that may influence their behaviour. 4 Economic vulnerabilities to global health pandemIcs_____6 4.1 Direct impacts _____6 4.2 Economic exposure _____7 4.3 Economic resilience _____7 4.4 Overall vulnerability _____8 5 Which countries are most vulnerable to the impact of coronavirus? Moreover, clinical research is often conducted in economically under-developed locales, such as lower- or middle-income countries as well as impoverished locales of otherwise wealthy nations (such as, for example, rural Appalachia in the United States). RAND Europe, a research unit of the RAND Corporation, Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center, Allies Growing Closer: Japan-Europe Security Ties in the Age of Strategic Competition, Autonomous Vehicles and the Future of Auto Insurance, Teleworking During the COVID-19 Pandemic Highlights Educational Inequity, Medical Mistrust Could Reduce Vaccine Uptake: Q&A with Laura Bogart. In this paper, economic vulnerability is defined as the exposure of an economy to exogenous shocks, arising out of economic openness, while economic resilience is … There are four main actor groups within the vulnerability disclosure process: Users, Vendors, Finders and Coordinators. May 2008. How payment for research participation can be coercive, Association between financial incentives and participant deception about study eligibility, International ethical guidelines for health-related research involving humans, Guideline 13, Money, coercion, and undue inducement: a survey of attitudes about payments to research participants, Philosophical reflections on experimenting with human subjects, Motivations, enrollment decisions, and socio-demographic characteristics of healthy volunteers in phase 1 research, More than the money: a review of the literature examining healthy volunteer motivations, Ethics in human subjects research: do incentives matter, Paying research participants: Ethical guidance for IRBs and Investigators, The influence of risk and monetary payment on the research participation decision making process, Informative inducement: study payment as a signal of risk, Community trust reduces myopic decisions of low-income individuals, Empirical assessment of whether moderate payments are undue or unjust inducements for participation in clinical trials, Fair subject selection in clinical research: formal equality of opportunity, Declaration of Helsinki—Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. The agriculture sector is fundamental to this development from the economic and social perspectives. Economic vulnerability and payment for research participation. The economic vulnerability category includes persons who are disadvantaged in the distribution of social goods and services such as income, housing, or healthcare. While some of these disclosures have been done so responsibly, other vulnerabilities have come to light only after substantial cyber attacks. The population of poor countries has a state that does not guarantee them minimum conditions of survival and sustenance, and in the pursuit of personal and social growth there is no concern with sustainable development. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. This is important, as individuals of lower socio-economic standing are present in all disease groups and study populations. Economic and Environmental Vulnerability Application and Indicator Selection Countries are eligible to enter or leave the LDC category if they meet the defined inclusion or … The researchers drew on … Vulnerabilities in widely used software and hardware can cause immense societal harm across the globe. For love and money: the need to rethink benefits in HIV cure studies, Barriers to recruiting underrepresented populations to cancer clinical trials: a systematic review, Human rights and maternal-fetal HIV transmission prevention trials in Africa, Participants in the 2001 conference on ethical aspects of research in developing countries. … Economic incentives play a key role in vulnerability disclosure across all actors and processes, regardless of what type of vulnerability disclosure process is ultimately pursued. *Corresponding author. economic vulnerability that examines the proneness of countries to shocks in their performance. Abstract. Vulnerability research in climate change has, in some ways, a unique distinction of being a widely accepted and used term and an integral part of its scientific agenda. Older societies and poorly functioning healthcare systems often make countries vulnerable to the health impacts of the pandemic. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. He has worked across a range of topics including transport, defence and security, education, health and wellbeing. In recent decades, countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have been developing rapidly in terms of economic development and incomes. Halpern, SD, Karlawish, JHT, Casarett, D. Hawkins, J, Emanuel, EJ (eds). Between 2017 and the beginning of 2020, the different models had followed a common, slowly increasing trend of higher vulnerability. The present paper, which refers to this index, first examines how a structural economic vulnerability index can be designed for the low-income countries in particular. Is it ethical to offer payment in such contexts? Lean Library can solve it. In recent years, there have been numerous high-profile vulnerabilities disclosed or exploited that have incurred significant economic and societal costs. Quality of healthcare and age of the population. An analysis of possible COVID-19 economic recovery packages shows the potential for strong alignment between the economy and the environment. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. There are also several possible vulnerability disclosure options that actors can engage in, including full, limited, or non-disclosure, which further influence the types of economic considerations and incentives that are present. In this paper, economic vulnerability is defined as the exposure of an economy to exogenous shocks, arising out of economic openness, while economic resilience is defined as the policy-induced ability of an economy to withstand or recover from the effects of such shocks. Vulnerability disclosure takes place in a wider computing and information security ecosystem whose unique economic structures and incentives have direct economic effects on vulnerability disclosure. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? Fair benefits for research in developing countries, Participants in the 2001 conference on ethical aspects of research in developing countries. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. “Economic vulnerability,” the new OECD research shows, varies widely within the developed world. Only a little over 10 percent of people in Japan, for instance, rate as economically vulnerable. The study was carried out through a mixed-methods approach comprising desk research, literature review and key informant interviews. Four Gifts for Your Mental Health This (Pandemic) Holiday Season, The Compensation System for Potential Side Effects Is an Important Part of a COVID-19 Vaccine Campaign, Getting to Know Military Caregivers and Their Needs, Helping Coastal Communities Plan for Climate Change, Improving Psychological Wellbeing and Work Outcomes in the UK, >The economics of vulnerability disclosure, Good Practice Guide on Vulnerability Disclosure, Good Practice Guide on Vulnerability Disclosure: From Challenges to Recommendations, Choice Modelling and Behavioural Research. The study also reaffirmed that the economics of vulnerability disclosure is an emerging area of research, with a clear need for additional empirical data and relevant research in a number of areas, including: Erik Silfversten, William D. Phillips, Giacomo Persi Paoli, Cosmin Ciobanu. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. The Pardee RAND Graduate School ( is the largest public policy Ph.D. program in the nation and the only program based at an independent public policy research organization—the RAND Corporation. Economic Vulnerability. Exploitation and developing countries: the ethics of clinical research. Economic vulnerability is captured under the socio-economic category, which is computed as the arithmetic mean of indicators measuring development and deprivation, inequality, and aid dependency. Vulnerability can mainly be broken down into 2 major categories, economic vulnerability, based on socioeconomic factors, and geographic vulnerability. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Payment to economically vulnerable participants: distinctive issues, Potential directions for future empirical research, A framework for ethical payment to research participants, What’s the price of a research subject? Format: Tips … Revisiting Economic Vulnerability in Old Age: Low Income and Subjective Experiences Among Swiss Pensioners Life Course Research and Social Policies 11 , Band 11: Henke, Julia: Fremdsprachige Bücher In response to the need expressed by the UN General Assembly, an economic vulnerability index (EVI) has been defined by the Committee for Development Policy. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Oxford Economics is a leader in global forecasting and quantitative analysis, with the world’s only fully integrated economic model and 250 full-time economists, we help our clients track, analyse, and model country, industry, and urban trends. What makes research in developing countries ethical? Moral standards for research in developing countries: from “reasonable availability” to “fair benefits.”, Research at the auction block: problems for the fair benefits approach to international research. There has been significant analysis of the ethical and regulatory issues involved with paying research participants, but less attention has been focused specifically on paying economically vulnerable individuals and the unique challenges it may present. Executive Summary. Assessing Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change Impacts and Environmental Hazards in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia ERIN F. SMITH*, NONI KEYS, SCOTT N. LIESKE and TIMOTHY F. SMITH Sustainability Research Centre, ML28, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Qld 4558, Australia. Economic decisions taken in the vulnerability disclosure process largely depend on the particular incentives perceived by each actor at different stages of the process. Vulnerability disclosure actors are subject to economic incentives and motivations that may influence their behaviour at the individual and organisational level, as well as at the structural and normative levels. He works at the intersection of technology, policy and the future and his primary research interests are complex, strategic policy challenges in relation to…, Will Phillips (he/him) is an analyst at RAND Europe working in the area of home affairs and social policy research. Oxford Development Studies: Vol. He has also developed expertise in methodologies including…, Nicole van der Meulen, Salil Gunashekar, Stefan Soesanto, Eun A Jo. Informed Consent FAQs: when does compensating subjects undermine informed consent or parental permission? The measurement of economic resilience is carried out through the development of an index gauging the adequacy of policy in four broad areas, namely macroeconomic stability, microeconomic market … The four models, introduced in a Liberty Street Economics post in 2018 and updated in a post last year, monitor vulnerabilities of U.S. banking firms and the way in which these vulnerabilities interact to amplify negative shocks. The paper briefly reviews the work already carried out on economic vulnerability and extends the research … Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. economic vulnerability and extends research work carried so far towards developing a conceptual and methodological framework for the definition and measurement of economic resilience. Climate change represents a classic multi-scale global change problem in that it is characterized by infinitely diverse actors, multiple stressors and multiple time scales. What are the ethical considerations relevant for determining payment rates and practices to individuals who are economically vulnerable? Sharing links are not available for this article. This site uses cookies. Just about 40 percent of Americans, by contrast, live at that razor’s edge. Their research forecasts which countries are most susceptible to long-term economic scarring, and which could be first to bounce back. An Economic Vulnerability Index: Its Design and Use for International Development Policy Patrick Guillaumont To cite this version: Patrick Guillaumont. She has to her credit many research articles published in international refereed journals. A featured contributor with The Dispatch, Dr. Farah Naqvi is an academician, writer, corporate trainer and HRD consultant associated with many MNCs and institutions in the field of academics, behavioral training, consulting and research. Economic vulnerability. (2009). × To Support Customers in Easily and Affordably Obtaining the Latest Peer-Reviewed Research, Receive a 20% Discount on ALL Publications and Free Worldwide Shipping on Orders Over US$ 295 Additionally, Enjoy … In this context, the study of s ocio-economic vulnerability focu ses - among other things - on the time-specific activity and mobility patterns (dynamic exposure) of the local population, as well as on their susceptibility, risk awareness, potential behaviours in emergency. It recalls the conceptual and empirical grounds of the index, considers the … A national survey of investigators and IRB chairpersons, Commonly performed procedures in clinical research: a benchmark for payment, Paying research subjects: an analysis of current policies, Money, coercion, and undue inducement: attitudes about payments to research participants, Misconceptions about coercion and undue influence: reflections on the views of IRB members, Paying research participants: regulatory uncertainty, conceptual confusion, and a path forward, On paying money to research subjects: “due” and “undue” inducements, Paying research participants: the outsized influence of “undue influence.”, Vulnerability in research: individuals with limited financial and/or social resources, The recruitment of normal healthy volunteers: a review of the literature on the use of financial incentives, Perceptions of financial payment for research participation among African-American drug users in HIV studies, Attrition and retention of ethnically diverse subjects in a multicenter randomized controlled research trial, Payment for research participation: a coercive offer. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Approaches to payment for research participation, An analysis of U.S. practices of paying research participants, Why do we pay? Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. These economic aspects are often overlooked and poorly understood, however they may help explain why some vulnerabilities are disclosed responsibly while others are not. However, this sector is highly sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation and increased climate change impacts. Luke Gelinas, Sarah A White, and Barbara E Bierer. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. This study serves as a follow up to the 2015 ENISA Good Practice Guide on Vulnerability Disclosure and seeks to provide a glimpse into the economics, costs, and incentives related to discovering and disclosing vulnerabilities. Login failed. Clinical Trials 0 10.1177/1740774520905596 Download Citation. An Economic Vulnerability Index: Its Design and Use for International Devel-opment Policy. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. It is necessary to have processes in place to adequately identify, report and mitigate vulnerabilities.

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